In the ocean or on the ocean

Malazragore / 28.01.2018

in the ocean or on the ocean

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In the ocean or on the ocean -

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Actually, all the elevated land could be hidden under the oceans and Earth reduced to a smooth sphere that would be completely covered by a continuous layer of seawater more than 2, metres 8, feet deep.

Earth is unique in the solar system because of its distance from the Sun and its period of rotation. Mean surface temperature varies little over annual and night-day cycles.

This mean temperature allows water to exist on Earth in all three of its phases— solid , liquid , and gaseous.

No other planet in the solar system has this feature. The liquid phase predominates on Earth. The gaseous phase and droplet water in the atmosphere constitute 0.

Fresh water in lakes and streams makes up 0. Glaciers and ice caps constitute 1. Each of the above is considered to be a reservoir of water.

Water continuously circulates between these reservoirs in what is called the hydrologic cycle , which is driven by energy from the Sun.

Evaporation , precipitation , movement of the atmosphere, and the downhill flow of river water, glaciers, and groundwater keep water in motion between the reservoirs and maintain the hydrologic cycle.

The large range of volumes in these reservoirs and the rates at which water cycles between them combine to create important conditions on Earth.

If small changes occur in the rate at which water is cycled into or out of a reservoir, the volume of a reservoir changes. These volume changes may be relatively large and rapid in a small reservoir or small and slow in a large reservoir.

A small percentage change in the volume of the oceans may produce a large proportional change in the land-ice reservoir, thereby promoting glacial and interglacial stages.

The rate at which water enters or leaves a reservoir divided into the reservoir volume determines the residence time of water in the reservoir.

The residence time of water in a reservoir, in turn, governs many of the properties of that reservoir. For a full description of the water in the oceans, see seawater.

For information on the forces that move water through the ocean, see ocean current. For a description of the different kinds of waves that traverse the ocean, see wave.

See also marine ecosystem for coverage of the life-forms that populate the marine environment. In some places the ocean is deeper than Mount Everest is high; for example, the Mariana Trench and the Tonga Trench in the western part of the Pacific Ocean reach depths in excess of 10, metres 32, feet.

Within this ocean habitat live a wide variety of organisms that…. Arbitrary boundaries separate these bodies of water. The boundaries of each ocean are largely defined by the continents that frame them.

In the Southern Hemisphere the southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans and their tributary seas that surround Antarctica are often referred to as the Southern Ocean.

Many subdivisions can be made to distinguish the limits of seas and gulfs that have historical, political, and sometimes ecological significance.

However, water properties, ocean currents , and biological populations are not constrained by these boundaries.

Indeed, many researchers do not recognize them either. If area-volume analyses of the oceans are to be made, then boundaries must be established to separate individual regions.

In Erwin Kossina, a German geographer, published tables giving the distribution of oceanic water with depth for the oceans and adjacent seas. This work was updated in by American geologist H.

Menard and American oceanographer S. The latter only slightly changed the numbers derived by Kossina. This was remarkable, since the original effort relied entirely on the sparse depth measurements accumulated by individual wire soundings, while the more recent work had the benefit of acoustic depth soundings collected since the s.

This type of analysis, called hypsometry , allows quantification of the surface area distribution of the oceans and their marginal seas with depth.

The Southern Hemisphere may be called the water hemisphere, while the Northern Hemisphere is the land hemisphere. This is especially true in the temperate latitudes.

This asymmetry of land and water distribution between the Northern and Southern hemispheres makes the two hemispheres behave very differently in response to the annual variation in solar radiation received by Earth.

Both the depth and the distance from shore strongly influence the biodiversity of the plants and animals present in each region. In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans.

For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans. They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding.

Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins , seagulls and pelicans. Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles , also spend most of their time in the oceans.

A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases.

Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower.

If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.

Salinity can be calculated using the chlorinity, which is a measure of the total mass of halogen ions includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in seawater.

By international agreement, the following formula is used to determine salinity:. The average chlorinity is about Many of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports.

Some of the major harvests are shrimp , fish , crabs , and lobster. The motions of the ocean surface, known as undulations or waves , are the partial and alternate rising and falling of the ocean surface.

The series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air is called swell.

Although Earth is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System , other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans.

The gas giants , Jupiter and Saturn , are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen ; however their planetary geology is not well understood.

The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised.

Although their composition is still not fully understood, a study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water "ocean" existing on Neptune, [60] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.

The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, though the water on Mars is no longer oceanic much of it residing in the ice caps.

The possibility continues to be studied along with reasons for their apparent disappearance. Astronomers think that Venus had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history.

A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan , Europa , Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto , Ganymede [62] [63] and Triton.

Geysers have been found on Saturn's moon Enceladus , possibly originating from about 10 kilometers 6.

Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan , although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas.

The Cassini—Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had.

Cassini's more recent fly-by of Titan offers radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes exist near the colder polar regions.

Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice and hydrocarbon mix that forms its outer crust. Ceres appears to be differentiated into a rocky core and icy mantle and may harbour a liquid-water ocean under its surface.

Not enough is known of the larger trans-Neptunian objects to determine whether they are differentiated bodies capable of supporting oceans, although models of radioactive decay suggest that Pluto , [69] Eris , Sedna , and Orcus have oceans beneath solid icy crusts approximately to km thick.

Some planets and natural satellites outside the Solar System are likely to have oceans, including possible water ocean planets similar to Earth in the habitable zone or "liquid-water belt".

The detection of oceans, even through the spectroscopy method, however is likely extremely difficult and inconclusive. Other possible candidates are merely speculated based on their mass and position in the habitable zone include planet though little is actually known of their composition.

Some scientists speculate Keplerb may be an "ocean-like" planet. Gliese b is speculated to have an ocean of "hot ice". Terrestrial planets will acquire water during their accretion, some of which will be buried in the magma ocean but most of it will go into a steam atmosphere, and when the atmosphere cools it will collapse on to the surface forming an ocean.

There will also be outgassing of water from the mantle as the magma solidifies—this will happen even for planets with a low percentage of their mass composed of water, so "super-Earth exoplanets may be expected to commonly produce water oceans within tens to hundreds of millions of years of their last major accretionary impact.

Oceans, seas, lakes and other bodies of liquids can be composed of liquids other than water, for example the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan.

The possibility of seas of nitrogen on Triton was also considered but ruled out. Supercritical fluids, although not liquids, do share various properties with liquids.

Underneath the thick atmospheres of the planets Uranus and Neptune , it is expected that these planets are composed of oceans of hot high-density fluid mixtures of water, ammonia and other volatiles.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. For other uses, see Ocean disambiguation.

Borders of the oceans. Encyclopedia of Earth , [19] [20] [21] [22] [26] International Hydrographic Organization , [23] Regional Oceanography: Extraterrestrial liquid water and List of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System.

Oceans portal Ecology portal Environment portal Geography portal Weather portal. Extraterrestrial liquid water Ocean planet Ice planet.

Retrieved May 17, Retrieved February 21, Retrieved February 5, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on Retrieved August 18, Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 16 June South East Asia, Colonial History: The rise of Portuguese power in India, — Retrieved 22 May A Global History of Exploration.

Zuiderbaan Dutch Discoveries of Australia. Book F [B6] Ages 10— Encyclopedia of the Arctic: Retrieved 10 June Limits of Oceans and Seas. The Ring of Fire.

Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 6 April Self-determinable Development of Small Islands.

University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 14 June Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.

University of California Press. Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 23 August Encyclopedia of Environmental Science.

Equatorial Currents Background" , Ocean Motion. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 30 June Archived 22 March at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved on 16 January When is hurricane season? Retrieved 25 July Air pressure and wind. Retrieved on 8 May Geology and the Environment.

Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. Aftab 23 October Looking Into the Earth: An Introduction to Geological Geophysics.

Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin Oceanographic Atlas of the Pacific Ocean. Paradise Isles of the Pacific. The Exploration of the Pacific. Development and Social Change in the Pacific Islands.

Charting the Vast Pacific. A Concise History of the North Pacific, — University of British Columbia Press. The Pacific Islands 3rd ed. The Sea and Civilization: A Maritime History of the World Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia 2nd ed.

British imperial strategies in the Pacific, — Ashgate Publishing, Paradise Found and Lost. University of Minnesota Press. Prehistory in the Pacific Islands: Historiography [ edit ] Davidson, James Wightman.

The Ivory Tower and Beyond: Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing vol 2.

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Lastly, the hadal zone corresponds to the hadalpelagic zone, which is found in oceanic trenches. The pelagic zone can be further subdivided into two subregions: The neritic zone encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves whereas the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water.

In contrast, the littoral zone covers the region between low and high tide and represents the transitional area between marine and terrestrial conditions.

It is also known as the intertidal zone because it is the area where tide level affects the conditions of the region. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline.

The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths.

Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.

If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. The halocline often coincides with the thermocline, and the combination produces a pronounced pycnocline.

The British naval vessel Challenger II surveyed the trench in and named the deepest part of the trench the " Challenger Deep ". In , the Trieste successfully reached the bottom of the trench, manned by a crew of two men.

Oceanic maritime currents have different origins. Tidal currents are in phase with the tide , hence are quasiperiodic , they may form various knots in certain places, [ clarification needed ] most notably around headlands.

Non periodic currents have for origin the waves, wind and different densities. These currents can decompose in one quasi permanent current which varies within the hourly scale and one movement of Stokes drift under the effect of rapid waves movement at the echelon of a couple of seconds.

This acceleration of the current takes place in the direction of waves and dominant wind. Accordingly, when the sea depth increases, the rotation of the earth changes the direction of currents, in proportion with the increase of depth while friction lowers their speed.

At a certain sea depth, the current changes direction and is seen inverted in the opposite direction with speed current becoming nul: The influence of these currents is mainly experienced at the mixed layer of the ocean surface, often from to meters of maximum depth.

These currents can considerably alter, change and are dependent on the various yearly seasons. If the mixed layer is less thick 10 to 20 meters , the quasi permanent current at the surface adopts an extreme oblique direction in relation to the direction of the wind, becoming virtually homogeneous, until the Thermocline.

In the deep however, maritime currents are caused by the temperature gradients and the salinity between water density masses.

In littoral zones , breaking wave is so intense and the depth measurement so low, that maritime currents reach often 1 to 2 knots.

Ocean currents greatly affect Earth's climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions. Transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, winds may carry them inland.

Surface heat and freshwater fluxes create global density gradients that drive the thermohaline circulation part of large-scale ocean circulation.

It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation. Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth's energy budget.

In so far as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

For a discussion of the possibilities of changes to the thermohaline circulation under global warming , see shutdown of thermohaline circulation.

It is often stated that the thermohaline circulation is the primary reason that the climate of Western Europe is so temperate.

An alternate hypothesis claims that this is largely incorrect, and that Europe is warm mostly because it lies downwind of an ocean basin, and because atmospheric waves bring warm air north from the subtropics.

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans.

One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: The ocean has a significant effect on the biosphere.

Oceanic evaporation , as a phase of the water cycle , is the source of most rainfall, and ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns that affect life on land.

Life within the ocean evolved 3 billion years prior to life on land. Both the depth and the distance from shore strongly influence the biodiversity of the plants and animals present in each region.

In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans.

They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins , seagulls and pelicans.

Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles , also spend most of their time in the oceans. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline.

The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity.

If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher.

Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.

Salinity can be calculated using the chlorinity, which is a measure of the total mass of halogen ions includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in seawater.

By international agreement, the following formula is used to determine salinity:. The average chlorinity is about Many of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports.

Some of the major harvests are shrimp , fish , crabs , and lobster. The motions of the ocean surface, known as undulations or waves , are the partial and alternate rising and falling of the ocean surface.

The series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air is called swell. Although Earth is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System , other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans.

The gas giants , Jupiter and Saturn , are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen ; however their planetary geology is not well understood.

The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised.

Although their composition is still not fully understood, a study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water "ocean" existing on Neptune, [60] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.

The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, though the water on Mars is no longer oceanic much of it residing in the ice caps.

The possibility continues to be studied along with reasons for their apparent disappearance. Astronomers think that Venus had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history.

A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan , Europa , Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto , Ganymede [62] [63] and Triton.

Geysers have been found on Saturn's moon Enceladus , possibly originating from about 10 kilometers 6. Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan , although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas.

The Cassini—Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had.

Cassini's more recent fly-by of Titan offers radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes exist near the colder polar regions.

Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice and hydrocarbon mix that forms its outer crust. Ceres appears to be differentiated into a rocky core and icy mantle and may harbour a liquid-water ocean under its surface.

Not enough is known of the larger trans-Neptunian objects to determine whether they are differentiated bodies capable of supporting oceans, although models of radioactive decay suggest that Pluto , [69] Eris , Sedna , and Orcus have oceans beneath solid icy crusts approximately to km thick.

Some planets and natural satellites outside the Solar System are likely to have oceans, including possible water ocean planets similar to Earth in the habitable zone or "liquid-water belt".

The detection of oceans, even through the spectroscopy method, however is likely extremely difficult and inconclusive. Other possible candidates are merely speculated based on their mass and position in the habitable zone include planet though little is actually known of their composition.

Some scientists speculate Keplerb may be an "ocean-like" planet. Gliese b is speculated to have an ocean of "hot ice".

Terrestrial planets will acquire water during their accretion, some of which will be buried in the magma ocean but most of it will go into a steam atmosphere, and when the atmosphere cools it will collapse on to the surface forming an ocean.

There will also be outgassing of water from the mantle as the magma solidifies—this will happen even for planets with a low percentage of their mass composed of water, so "super-Earth exoplanets may be expected to commonly produce water oceans within tens to hundreds of millions of years of their last major accretionary impact.

Oceans, seas, lakes and other bodies of liquids can be composed of liquids other than water, for example the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan.

The possibility of seas of nitrogen on Triton was also considered but ruled out. Supercritical fluids, although not liquids, do share various properties with liquids.

Underneath the thick atmospheres of the planets Uranus and Neptune , it is expected that these planets are composed of oceans of hot high-density fluid mixtures of water, ammonia and other volatiles.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. For other uses, see Ocean disambiguation.

Borders of the oceans. Encyclopedia of Earth , [19] [20] [21] [22] [26] International Hydrographic Organization , [23] Regional Oceanography: Extraterrestrial liquid water and List of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System.

Oceans portal Ecology portal Environment portal Geography portal Weather portal. These figures are much higher than previous calculations. The mass of the plastic in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch GPGP was estimated to be approximately 80, tonnes , which is times more than previous calculations.

This weight is also equivalent to that of Jumbo Jets. The center of the GPGP has the highest density and the further boundaries are the least dense.

When quantifying the mass of the GPGP, the team chose to account only for the denser center area.

If the less-dense outer region was also considered in the total estimate, the total mass would then be closer to , tonnes.

A total of 1. Using a similar approach as they did when figuring the mass, the team chose to employ conservative estimations of the plastic count.

Using data from multiple reconnaissance missions, a mass concentration model was produced to visualize the plastic distribution in the patch.

The mass concentration model, pictured below, shows how the concentration levels gradually decrease by orders of magnitude towards the outside boundaries of the GPGP.

These results prove that plastic pollution at sea, while densely distributed within the patch, is scattered and does not form a solid mass, thus demystifying the trash island concept.

The Ocean Cleanup measured the vertical distribution of plastic during six expeditions between to Results from these expeditions proved that the buoyant plastic mass is distributed within the top few meters of the ocean.

Factors such as windspeed, sea state and plastic buoyancy will influence vertical mixing. However, buoyant plastic will eventually float back to the surface in calmer seas.

Larger pieces were observed to resurface much more rapidly than smaller pieces. Characteristics of the debris in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, such as plastic type and age, prove that plastic has the capacity to persist in this region.

Plastic in the patch has also been measured since the 's and the calculations from subsequent years show that microplastic mass concentration is increasing exponentially - proving that the input of plastic in the patch is greater than the output.

Unless sources are mitigated, this number will continue to rise. The vast majority of plastics retrieved were made of rigid or hard polyethylene PE or polypropylene PP , or derelict fishing gear nets and ropes particularly.

Ranging in size from small fragments to larger objects and meter-sized fishing nets. Plastic within the patch was categorized into four size classes: Once the plastics were collected, a team of volunteers classified the plastic into: Hard plastic, plastic sheet or film; - Type N: Plastic lines, ropes and fishing nets; - Type P: Pre-production plastics cylinders, spheres or disks ; - Type F: Fragments made of foamed materials.

These plastic types were then screened for clues on age and origin. This was performed by examining each object for dates, languages, trademarks, symbols or 'made in' statements.

Because the plastics have been shown to persist in this region, they will likely break down into smaller plastics while floating in the GPGP.

This deterioration into microplastics is usually the result of sun exposure, waves, marine life and temperature changes. Microplastics have been discovered floating within the water surface layers, but also in the water column or as far down as the ocean floor.

Once they become this small, microplastics are very difficult to remove and are often mistaken for food by marine animals. Not only does plastic pollution in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch pose risks for the safety and health of marine animals, but there are health and economic implications for humans as well.

Plastic has increasingly become a ubiquitous substance in the ocean. Due to its size and color, animals confuse the plastic for food, causing malnutrition; it poses entanglement risks and threatens their overall behavior, health and existence.

Animals migrating through or inhabiting this area are then likely consuming plastic in the patch. Interaction with these discarded nets, also known as ghost nets ghost nets , often results in the death of the marine life involved.

Once plastic enters the marine food web, there is a possibility that it will contaminate the human food chain as well. Efforts to clean and eradicate ocean plastic have also caused significant financial burdens.

Through a process called bioaccumulation, chemicals in plastics will enter the body of the animal feeding on the plastic, and as the feeder becomes prey, the chemicals will pass to the predator - making their way up the food web that includes humans.

These chemicals that affected the plastic feeders could then be present within the human as well. The United Nations reported that the approximate environmental damage caused by plastic to marine ecosystems represents 13 billion USD.

This figure included the cost of beach cleanups and the financial loss incurred by fisheries. Resulting from several research missions, travelling across and above the GPGP, The Ocean Cleanup team compiled an unprecedented amount of data to better understand the plastic that persists in this region.

Scientists have been studying this area since the 's - usually by means of dragging a small sampling net through the debris.

This method showed a bias towards smaller objects and did not provide much insight into the larger pieces, and, thus, the entire scope of the GPGP.

Over the course of three years, researchers at The Ocean Cleanup went on several data collection missions.

This included the Multi-Level-Trawl expedition, where they analyzed the depth at which buoyant plastic debris may be vertically distributed; the Mega Expedition using vessels to cross the patch with many trawls at once; and the Aerial Expedition which involved the use of a plane flying at low altitude to observe the debris from above.

Realizing that previous methods of analyzing the plastic in the patch needed improvement, The Ocean Cleanup designed a new research tool, called the multi-level-trawl, which allowed measurements of 11 water layers simultaneously going as far down as 5 meters below surface level.

This trawl was then used in the Vertical Distribution Research. The multi-level-trawl allowed the team to study further down into the water and understand to which depths buoyant plastic may be distributed.

Through these studies, it was observed that buoyant plastic floats primarily in the first few meters of the water. Numerous vessel owners offered the use of their ships for the mission.

Of those ships, many carried behind them a Manta-trawl; including one mothership, the ft long Ocean Starr, which was able to carry two 6-meter-wide trawls and a survey balloon.

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